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Sermon Outline

The Great Controversy

Light Shines in the Darkness

Lesson #3 for April 20, 2024

Scriptures:John 8:44; 12:35; Proverbs 16:25; 23:23; Acts 20:27-32; 2 Thessalonians 2:7-12; Psalm 119:105,116,130,133,160; 2 Corinthians 4:3-6; [The Great Controversy pages 49-60].

  1. What do we know about the two sides in the great controversy?

Revelation 12:7-9: 7 Then war broke out in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, who fought back with his angels; 8but the dragon was defeated, and he and his angels were not allowed to stay in heaven any longer. 9The huge dragon was thrown out—that ancient serpent, called the Devil, or Satan, that deceived the whole world. He was thrown down to earth, and all his angels with him.—American Bible Society. (1992). The Holy Bible: The Good News Translation* (2nd ed.,Revelation 12:7-9). New York: American Bible Society [abbreviated as Good News Bible].†‡

[From the Bible study guide=BSG:] In the Bible’s last book, Revelation, the devil is pictured as a dragon and a serpent (Rev. 12:9). He is a dragon because he desires to destroy God’s people, and he is a serpent because he uses all his cunning lies to deceive them. In the years after Christ’s death, thousands were tortured, thrown to lions, and burned at the stake by imperial Rome for refusing to worship its deities. Yet, in the face of this cruel punishment, many stayed faithful, the gospel continued to spread, and the church grew.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Saturday Afternoon, April 13.†‡§

[BSG:] This week’s lesson emphasizes that the great controversy is comprised of two unequal and irreconcilable sides. These sides are unequal because of who God is and who the devil is. While God is the Eternal One, the Creator, and the loving and righteous King of the universe, the devil and evil have a beginning and, thus, will have an end. The devil, sin, and evil are temporary aberrations that, though affecting God and the entire universe, will be extinguished by our all-powerful, all-loving, and all-just God. Consequently, the two parties engaged in the great controversy, God and Satan, simply cannot compromise.

The Bible depicts the great controversy in terms of a conflict between two radically opposite forces, such as light versus darkness or truth versus lies. True, the side of evil clamors for a compromise with the truth, for such compromise is evil’s only chance of survival. The side of evil seeks to secure its survival at any cost in order that it might destroy that which is good or of God. That is why the devil has continually been at work to lure the church into compromise. Unfortunately, the church fell into compromise, as did humanity’s first parents. The effects of these compromises are seen and felt to this day. God, however, who is the Source of truth and light, will never compromise. Trust in God and faithfulness to the truth, as revealed in Jesus through Scripture, will safeguard the church from compromise and prevent us from falling prey to the devil.—Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 39.†‡

  1. Let us look at what will be the major topics of this lesson:
  2. [BSG:] In depicting the great controversy, the Bible uses diametrically opposed terms, such as light and darkness, to highlight the fact that God and His people cannot compromise the truth in any way with error and falsehood.
  3. From the earliest days of Jesus’ ministry and in the subsequent work of His apostles, the devil relentlessly pressured the church to slide into error or, at the very least, to compromise God’s truth.
  4. To compromise truth, however, is tantamount to the betrayal of God and the destruction of truth itself. Ultimately, such compromise constitutes siding with Satan.
  5. The only way the church may emerge victorious in the great controversy is to remain faithful to the divine revelation in Jesus Christ and in God’s Holy Word.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 39-40.†‡
  6. After 10 years of severe persecution, the church still grew; so, Satan decided to change tactics. About 300 d., instead of trying to destroy God’s people through various means, he decided the tactic of compromise would work better. However, the faithful and true were not deceived. So long as they maintained the Bible and the Bible only as a safeguard, they were protected.
  7. What are the main distinctions that the Bible describes between Jesus and His opponent, Satan?

[BSG:] What Jesus says is true because He is the author of truth. Truth proceeds from the heart of an all-wise, all-loving, all-knowing God. He is the foundation of reality and of all truth.

In contrast, Satan is a liar and the father of lies. He is prepared to use lies, deceit, misinformation, and a distortion of the truth to lead God’s people astray. He deceived Eve in Eden by distorting truth, creating doubt, and blatantly denying what God said. Satan’s statement, “You shall not surely die,” in the context of eating the fruit, was a clear contradiction of what God had said. Throughout the centuries, Satan has used the same strategy. He undermines confidence in God’s Word, contradicts God’s revealed will, distorts Scripture, and at times misquotes the Bible to his advantage.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Sunday, April 14.†‡

John 14:6: Jesus answered him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life; no one goes to the Father except by me.”—Good News Bible.*

John 8:44: [Jesus said:] “You are the children of your father, the Devil, and you want to follow your father’s desires. From the very beginning he was a murderer and has never been on the side of truth, because there is no truth in him. When he tells a lie, he is only doing what is natural to him, because he is a liar and the father of all lies.”—Good News Bible.* [Are the children of a liar also liars?]

  1. Jesus is the author of all truth. As the omnipotent and omniscient Creator of the universe, He understands all issues fully. Being wise and loving, He chooses what is right. He always does for His people what is for their best good in the end.
  2. Satan is not dumb, and he is not deceived.

John 8:32: “You will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.”—Good News Bible.* [See alsoJohn 17:17 below in Item #11.]

[From the writings of Ellen G. White=EGW:] Satan well knew that the Holy Scriptures would enable men to discern his deceptions and withstand his power. It was by the word that even the Saviour of the world had resisted his attacks. At every assault, Christ presented the shield of eternal truth, saying, “It is written.” To every suggestion of the adversary, He opposed the wisdom and power of the word. In order for Satan to maintain his sway over men, and establish the authority of the papal usurper, he must keep them in ignorance of the Scriptures. The Bible would exalt God and place finite men in their true position; therefore its sacred truths must be concealed and suppressed. This logic was adopted by the Roman Church. For hundreds of years the circulation of the Bible was prohibited. The people were forbidden to read it or to have it in their houses, and unprincipled priests and prelates interpreted its teachings to sustain their pretensions. Thus the pope came to be almost universally acknowledged as the vicegerent of God on earth, endowed with authority over church and state.—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 51.3.†‡ [Notice that Jesus quoted Himself; He inspired Moses!]

  1. In what ways do you see Satan using his deceptive power or ways in our world today?
  2. Satan’s deceptive ways were apparent to Paul, even in his day.

Acts 20:27-31: 27 “For I have not held back from announcing to you the whole purpose of God. 28So keep watch over yourselves and over all the flock which the Holy Spirit has placed in your care. Be shepherds of the church of God, which he made his own through the blood of his Son. 29I know that after I leave, fierce wolves will come among you, and they will not spare the flock. 30The time will come when some men from your own group will tell lies to lead the believers away after them. 31Watch, then, and remember that with many tears, day and night, I taught every one of you for three years.”—Good News Bible.*

  1. Satan did not try to cause huge sudden changes in the church. He brought in errors subtly one by one. However, the faithful church leaders, even in Paul’s day saw the danger.

2 Thessalonians 2:7-12: 7 The Mysterious Wickedness is already at work, but what is going to happen will not happen until the one who holds it back is taken out of the way. 8Then the Wicked One will be revealed, but when the Lord Jesus comes, he will kill him with the breath from his mouth and destroy him with his dazzling presence. 9The Wicked One will come with the power of Satan and perform all kinds of false miracles and wonders, 10and use every kind of wicked deceit on those who will perish. They will perish because they did not welcome and love the truth so as to be saved. 11And so God sends the power of error to work in them so that they believe what is false. 12The result is that all who have not believed the truth, but have taken pleasure in sin, will be condemned.—Good News Bible.* [Do any people in our day do that?]

[BSG:] Contrary to the second commandment, idols were introduced into Christian worship. For millennia, idols were in the forefront of all pagan religions. To make Christianity more acceptable to heathens coming into the Christian church, pagan deities were renamed as so-called saints. Sunday, the day of worship for the sun god, was gradually adopted as the day of Christian worship in honor of the Resurrection. This false day, not sanctioned in Scripture, prevails even now.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Monday, April 15.†‡ [This form of compromise is called syncretism.]

  1. Are we personally compromising in any way with Satan’s deceptions in our day?
  2. Even in His prayer just before His trial and crucifixion, Jesus pointed out what the safe path for us would be.

John 17:15-17: 15 “I do not ask you to take them out of the world, but I do ask you to keep them safe from the Evil One. 16Just as I do not belong to the world, they do not belong to the world. 17Dedicate them to yourself by means of the truth; your word is truth.”—Good News Bible.*

  1. Paul repeated that message as recorded in Acts 20.

Acts 20:32: “And now I commend you to the care of God and to the message of his grace, which is able to build you up and give you the blessings God has for all his people.”—Good News Bible.*

[BSG:] The Bible is the infallible revelation of God’s will. It presents Heaven’s plan for humanity’s salvation. Since “all Scripture is given by the inspiration of God,” it is “profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness” (2 Tim. 3:16, NKJV). That is, “all Scripture” is inspired by God; not some parts or some parts more than others. The whole Bible must be accepted as the Word of God. Otherwise, the door is wide open for deception.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Tuesday, April 16.†‡§ [Other Bible versions (Good News Bible* in the footnote) say: “Every Scripture inspired by God is also useful….” If the Apocrypha and/or pseudepigrapha is included within the covers of a Bible, are all portions of that Bible inspired?]

  1. Where would Christians be even in our day if we did not have the Bible? What would we know about the life of Jesus? His suffering? His sacrifice? His resurrection? And His ascension?
  2. Satan does not have to gain everything all at once; he can introduce errors little by little.

[BSG:] Tragically, especially through the inroads of modern thinking, many theologians and Christians focus so much on the human side of Scripture that the Bible becomes the word of man instead the Word of God. The Bible, they argue, is the writings of kings, shepherds, a fisherman, priests, poets, and others who shared their understandings and conceptions of God, of nature, and of reality the best that they, in their time and place, understood them.

Really, now? If this were true, why should we, living today in the twenty-first century, really care about what these people thought, much less make what they thought the foundation for our hope of eternity?

We shouldn’t.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Tuesday, April 16.†‡

  1. Even back in the days of David, it was understood clearly that the Bible writings that have been given through the inspiration of God were our safety.

Psalm 119:105,116,130,133: 105 Your word is a lamp to guide me

and a light for my path….

116 Give me strength, as you promised, and I shall live;

don’t let me be disappointed in my hope!...

130 The explanation of your teachings gives light

and brings wisdom to the ignorant….

133 As you have promised, keep me from falling;

don’t let me be overcome by evil.—Good News Bible.*

  1. In his subtle ways, Satan convinced many human beings to rely on their own thinking.
  2. But, the Bible had warned about that as well.

Proverbs 16:25: What you think is the right road may lead to death.—Good News Bible.*

Judges 21:25: There was no king in Israel at that time. All the people did just as they pleased.—Good News Bible.*

Isaiah 53:6: “All of us were like sheep that were lost,

each of us going his own way.

But the LORD made

the punishment fall on him,

the punishment all of us deserved.”—Good News Bible.*

[BSG:] One of the devil’s most effective deceptions is to lead us to believe that human reasoning, unaided by the Holy Spirit and uninformed by the Word of God, is sufficient to understand God’s will. There may be a way that seems right to us, or even to entire cultures, but it may be totally wrong in the eyes of God.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Wednesday, April 17.

  1. Why is human reasoning so often in error even though it is convincing to our minds? Human reasoning can never provide any absolutes. As sure as one person has an idea that s/he is convinced about, someone else will disagree.
  2. This does not mean that human reason has no place. When carefully studied, the Bible appeals to human reason. Think of the story of Daniel’s prophecy in Daniel 2.

2 Corinthians 4:3-6: 3 For if the gospel we preach is hidden, it is hidden only from those who are being lost. 4They do not believe, because their minds have been kept in the dark by the evil god of this world. He keeps them from seeing the light shining on them, the light that comes from the Good News about the glory of Christ, who is the exact likeness of God. 5For it is not ourselves that we preach; we preach Jesus Christ as Lord, and ourselves as your servants for Jesus’ sake. 6The God who said, “Out of darkness the light shall shine!” is the same God who made his light shine in our hearts, to bring us the knowledge of God’s glory shining in the face of Christ.—Good News Bible.*

  1. What kind of deception is being discussed in these verses?

[BSG:] The Greek word for “mind” in this passage is noema. It literally means our perception or mental faculties. The SDA Bible Commentary makes an enlightening statement about this verse.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Thursday, April 18.‡§

[From The SDA Bible Commentary:] The battle between Christ and Satan is a battle for the minds of men. (Rom. 7:23, 25; 12:2; 2 Cor. 3:14, 11:3;Phil. 2:5, 4:7, 8). Satan’s principal work is to blind or darken men’s minds. He does this by keeping them from the study of God’s Word, by deranging the powers of the mind through the excesses of body and soul, by wholly occupying the mind through the things of this life, and by appealing to pride and self-exaltation.—The SDA Bible Commentary,* vol. 6, 854.3.†‡

  1. Paul introduced us to this complex issue.

Romans 7:23-25: 23 But I see a different law at work in my body—a law that fights against the law which my mind approves of. It makes me a prisoner to the law of sin which is at work in my body. 24What an unhappy man I am! Who will rescue me from this body that is taking me to death? 25Thanks be to God, who does this through our Lord Jesus Christ!

This, then, is my condition: on my own I can serve God’s law only with my mind, while my human nature serves the law of sin.—Good News Bible.*

Romans 12:2: Do not conform yourselves to the standards of this world, but let God transform you inwardly by a complete change of your mind. Then you will be able to know the will of God—what is good and is pleasing to him and is perfect.—Good News Bible.*

  1. So, how is it that we are so often led astray?

[BSG:] The lack of knowledge on the part of the lost is not because they could not know. It is because they would not know. Many have had every opportunity to know truth but chose not to believe, and Satan blinded their eyes. Satan’s kingdom is a kingdom of darkness. As The SDA Bible Commentary adds, “The gospel is the only means by which Satan’s diabolical schemes and deceptions can be exposed, and by which men can see the way from darkness to light.”—Volume 6, p. 854.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Thursday, April 18.†‡§

  1. While the amount of information we have about the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ is fairly limited, it forms the heart of the gospel. Jesus told the Sanhedrin, the ruling council of the Jews, that the entire Scriptures from beginning to end were a revelation about Him.

John 1:4-14: 4The Word was the source of life, and this life brought light to humanity. 5The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has never put it out….

9This was the real light—the light that comes into the world and shines on everyone….

14 The Word became a human being and, full of grace and truth, lived among us. We saw his glory, the glory which he received as the Father’s only Son.—Good News Bible.*

  1. But, the Devil was not asleep. He has been working continually in subtle ways to corrupt God’s church.

[EGW:] The same spirit of hatred and opposition to the truth has inspired the enemies of God in every age, and the same vigilance and fidelity have been required in His servants. The words of Christ to the first disciples are applicable to His followers to the close of time: “What I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.”Mark 13:37.—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 56.3-57.0.

[BSG:] In many parts of the world, especially where people have free access to the Bible, Satan has employed other means to weaken its influence. One very effective way has been through various scientific endeavors or even biblical scholarship, which sometimes takes positions that, if accepted, would undermine trust in the Word of God. For example, though the book of Daniel dates itself to more than 500 years before Christ, many Bible scholars date it, instead, to the middle of the second century b.c. They argue that it had to be written at this time; otherwise the prophet would have been accurately telling the future, and that can’t happen [they say]. Therefore, they argue, Daniel was not written when it says it was but, rather, hundreds of years later. Unfortunately, this lie about the Bible is one of many that modern scholarship seeks to foist upon us. And more unfortunately, many people accept this error because, after all, Bible scholars are teaching it. No wonder Paul warns us, “Test all things; hold fast what is good” (1 Thess. 5:21, NKJV).?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Friday, April 19.†‡§

  1. Are we beginning to get a hint about Satan’s methods? Do you see them subtly being used even in our day?
  2. [BSG:] What are our greatest safeguards against misinterpreting God’s Word?
  3. Satan’s major attempt in the great controversy between good and evil is to malign God’s character and present Him as an authoritarian, unloving tyrant. How does the evil one attempt to do this, and what is God’s response to his lies?
  4. The apostle Peter affirms that “no prophecy is of private interpretation” (2 Pet. 1:20). How can we be sure we do not distort the meaning of Scripture to achieve our own ends? Why might this be easier to do than we realize? How can we safeguard ourselves against it??Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Friday, April 19.‡§
  5. One of Satan’s most successful methods has been to suggest compromise.
  6. Is compromise good? Or, bad? Consider these comments from the Bible study guide regarding compromise.

[BSG:] In various social contexts, such as family life and politics, compromise is considered acceptable and, in many situations, even desirable. Generally, the word “compromise” refers to reaching an agreement, to settling, by mutual concession, for the middle ground between the positions of two or more parties. The key to such an agreement lies in “concession”: each side must cede something so that both, or all, sides can continue to coexist or live together. In some cases, each side compromises because none has the strength to convince, or overcome, and control the other side by force. In other cases, the parties compromise simply because they want to live together peaceably as neighbors, or as family, in love or mutual respect.

In the context of the latter perspective, compromise certainly has a positive connotation, appearing as a solution to conflict and as an opportunity for peaceful coexistence. These types of compromises are common in our daily lives and involve negotiation or tolerance. However, in general, compromise is perceived as a negative phenomenon, implying the loss of an essential value, principle, truth, or quality. A compromised lot of medicine, immune system, national identity, education, morality, reputation, harvest, or military position are all undesirable and unacceptable compromises because they threaten our very way of life or existence.

How about God? Could not He compromise with the rebel angels or with fallen humans to avoid the war in heaven and to allow all to coexist peacefully? Could He not, at least, tolerate the opposing party? If the opposing side wanted independence or autonomy, could not God grant this request? Could He not simply give the rebels a region somewhere in a corner of the universe where they might live by themselves instead of being exterminated?

The answer is complex. Several points, however, may help elucidate it.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 40.†‡

  1. The Bible study guide proceeds, suggesting there is no compromise by God.

[BSG:] First, there is a qualitative difference between our daily negotiations and the compromise that Lucifer was desirous of achieving. God created us with all the freedom necessary to express ourselves, to interact and negotiate with others, in love and in righteousness. However, there are some physical and moral limitations that cannot be compromised because these limits constitute the very foundation of our existence. This foundation is comprised of the truths that God is our Creator, our Provider, our Lawgiver (and as such, reveals how we should live our lives in order to be happy), and our King. God is the Source of our life. We simply cannot exist without Him. Lucifer wanted to change this very foundation. He challenged God’s character, status, and authority and claimed that humans are gods (Gen. 3:4), having existence in themselves and having ability to create their own meanings of, and standards for, life and happiness.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 40-41.†‡§

Genesis 3:4: The snake replied, “That’s not true; you will not die.”—Good News Bible.*

  1. The Bible study guide goes on discussing compromise:

[BSG:] Second, and closely related to the point above, is the nature of sin. Sin is not merely holding a dissenting opinion. Sin is the conscious and deliberate rebellion against, and rejection of, God’s claim that He is the only Creator, Provider, Lawgiver, and King. Sin cannot tolerate the existence of such a God. The foundational impulse of sin is to topple this God from His throne and install self as the king. The devil, however, offers a compromise. He would be willing to renounce his call for a total rejection of God’s existence as long as he, Lucifer, was also recognized as a god. God, on the other hand, allows no room for such a compromise or negotiation with sin. What can He concede on His part? To say that He is not the Creator? To say He is not the Provider? To say that He is not the Source of life and standard of happiness and morality? To say that angels and humans can have life without Him? Any of these would be a lie. While compromise would be a triumph for the devil, compromise would mean capitulation for God.

Third, and closely related to the first two points, the situation described above is not only about truth and honor but constitutes the ultimate life-and-death situation. Let us imagine for a moment that we are Adam and Eve. We are in a setting in which Satan and God explain their positions to us prior to the fall into sin. Satan claims that God lies to us, that we are autonomous, that we are gods, and that we are immortal. Furthermore, he asserts that we can reject God’s claims and will not die (Gen. 3:4) because we contain life, original and underived, within ourselves. Further, Satan accuses God of using His claim of being the Source and standard of life to control us all; this divine claim, for Satan, is dictatorship, autocracy, abuse, deception, and injustice. According to Satan, the fact that God does not want to compromise corroborates his allegations. For this reason, Satan calls us to break free from God’s “lies” and “abuse” and experience a new consciousness and autonomy, wherein we discover and enjoy our infinite and eternal divine potential. But aren’t these just allegations and speculations? Do we not run the risk of dying or disappearing from existence if we disconnect from God? Is it worth trying, just to prove a theory empirically? Lucifer certainly thought it was worth taking the risk.

God, on the other hand, tells us that He is the only Creator and Provider, and thus we cannot exist without Him. He tells us that if we do not believe Him, if we reject Him and His affirmations, we will disconnect from Him, the Source of life, and we will die, that is, disappear from existence. God explains to us that this outcome is not mere speculation but a fact because He is our Creator. We did not create ourselves, and we are not eternal. This fact alone, based on His Word, must be sufficient for us to believe Him. However, God points out that His claims are also evidenced by our past and present life: that is, as long as we have believed Him and lived with Him, everyone has been happy. The entire universe has been running smoothly, and no one has died. God further explains to us that He cannot compromise not only because He is right but also because if He renounces His throne, all of us and the entire universe will disappear from existence since He is the only Provider or Sustainer of existence and life. For this reason, God calls us to believe Him, to trust Him, to stay with Him, and to live happily with Him forever.

If you witnessed such a debate, whom would you have believed?

Fourth, unfortunately for humanity, our primeval parents accepted Lucifer’s speculation. Was the risk worth taking? No. The choice of our first parents turned into a tragedy for them and for the entire human race. Moreover, this conclusion is not mere speculation but is based on historical and empirical evidence. Instead of feeling divine and living forever after disobeying God’s law, humanity felt empty, naked, full of shame, their hearts and relationships broken (Gen. 3:7, 8). Moreover, the human race began to suffer and die. However, Lucifer did not stop his speculations against God’s government; he proposed more compromise. We are immortal, he now claimed, because we have an immortal soul, which, after death, goes to a spiritual, ethereal sphere. Tragically, most people have fallen into the trap of believing that falsehood. Moreover, Lucifer now began calling on God and humanity to accept the reality of the existence of sin and death as the new normal. In the many nonbiblical religions that have prevailed throughout human history, Satan has proposed to redefine and reinterpret suffering and death in order to avoid their pervasive presence, which constantly undermines his lying claims.

Fifth, God remained true to Himself. He explained that Adam and Eve remained alive after rejecting Him, not because Satan was right in his claim that we are immortal, nor because God compromised. Rather, Adam and Eve did not die because God, in His eternal love for humanity, had a plan of salvation, which started operating as soon as humans fell into sin. According to this plan, God, far from compromising, gave us a new opportunity to choose to be saved, live, and stay with Him. But this new opportunity and salvation were not the products of compromise. We must not confuse compromise with God’s patience, love, and grace. Rather, salvation and the new opportunity for life spring from God’s sacrifice. Precisely because God did not, and could not, compromise, He sacrificed. But He did not sacrifice us. Rather, He sacrificed His own life. If compromise were possible, He would not have needed to die in our place. But because He did not compromise, He chose rather to die in our place in order to uphold His truth, to manifest His love and righteousness, and to save us from the guilt and power of sin. Moreover, He did not compromise because He knew the consequences of compromise: suffering, misery, and death of the entire humanity and universe.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 41-43.†‡§

  1. So, how does it seem to you? Is compromising a good idea? Should we even consider compromise when dealing with the Devil versus God, the Creator, the omniscient One? God’s faithful people will never compromise.
  2. Examine yourself: (1) What criteria do you consider in determining what you think is truth? (2) What could you say to someone raising questions about the Bible to convince them that the Bible is our premier source of truth? (3) Do you feel like you have compromised in any of your beliefs?

©2024, Kenneth Hart, MD, MA, MPH. Permission is hereby granted for any noncommercial use of these materials. Free distribution of all or of a portion of this material such as to a Bible study class is encouraged. *Electronic version. Bold type is added. Brackets and content in brackets are added. §Italic type is in the source.

Last Modified: March 5, 2024                                                                                           Email: Info@theox.org