Three Cosmic Messages
The Everlasting Gospel
Lesson #3 for April 15, 2023
Scriptures:Revelation 14:6-12; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4; Romans 3:24-26; 1 Peter 1:18-20; Matthew 28:19-20; Acts 1:8.
- What is the everlasting gospel?
[From the Bible study guide=BSG:] In ancient Israel, when the heathen around them were polytheists, worshiping multiple “gods” of wood and stone, Israel’s clear, identifiable, powerful statement of faith was found inDeuteronomy 6:4: “ ‘Hear O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one’ ” (NKJV). [Good News Bible translation is quoted below.]
Throughout the centuries, the chanting of the Shema [sic] (the name of the prayer, based on the Hebrew word for “hear”) reminded the Jews of the spiritual vision that united them as a people and that strengthened their resolve to maintain their unique identity as worshipers of the one true God.
For Seventh-day Adventists, the three angels’ messages in Revelation 14 are our Shema [sic]. They are our identifying statement of faith. They define who we are as a people and describe our mission to the world. In short, our unique prophetic identity is outlined inRevelation 14:6–12, and it is here that we find our passion to proclaim the gospel to the world.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Sabbath Afternoon, April 8.†‡§
Deuteronomy 6:4: “Israel, remember this! The LORD—and the LORD alone—is our God.” [Footnote: The LORD … is our God; or The LORD, our God, is the only God; or The LORD our God is one.]?American Bible Society. (1992). The Holy Bible: The Good News Translation (2nd ed.,Deuteronomy 6:4). New York: American Bible Society [abbreviated: Good News Bible].‡§
Revelation 14:6-7: 6 Then I saw another angel flying high in the air, with an eternal message of Good News to announce to the peoples of the earth, to every race, tribe, language, and nation. 7He said in a loud voice, “Honour [sic] God and praise his greatness! For the time has come for him to judge. Worship him who made heaven, earth, sea, and the springs of water!”?Good News Bible.*‡
- A Sunday school teacher in Great Britain was once asked what she teaches her students about the book of Revelation, sometimes called Apocalypsis. Her response was: “Oh! We never talk about that book!”
- What do you think of when the book of Revelation is mentioned? Do you think of frightening beasts? Mystic symbols? Strange images? Groups of seven?
- How do we explain the fact thatRevelation 1:1-3 describes that book as the truth that Jesus Christ revealed.
Revelation 1:1-3: 1 This book is the record of the events that Jesus Christ revealed. God gave him this revelation in order to show his servants what must happen very soon. Christ made these things known to his servant John by sending his angel to him, 2and John has told all that he has seen. This is his report concerning the message from God and the truth revealed by Jesus Christ. 3Happy is the one who reads this book, and happy are those who listen to the words of this prophetic message and obey what is written in this book! For the time is near when all these things will happen.?Good News Bible.*† [SeeRevelation 14:6 in Item #1 above.]‡
- Blessings are pronounced upon those who read and study the book of Revelation.
[BSG:] According toRevelation 1:5, 6, Jesus is the One who “loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood, and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father” (NKJV). In Christ we are forgiven. Grace pardons our past, empowers our present, and provides hope for our future. That is, in Christ we are delivered from sin’s penalty and power, and one day soon we will be delivered from sin’s presence. This is the message of the Bible’s last book, Revelation.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Sunday, April 9.‡§
Revelation 1:5-6: 5And from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first to be raised from death and who is also the ruler of the kings of the world.
He loves us, and by his sacrificial death he has freed us from our sins 6and made us a kingdom of priests to serve his God and Father. To Jesus Christ be the glory and power for ever [sic] and ever! Amen.?Good News Bible.*‡
- What would you say if someone asked you to describe the gospel? The most important truth of all is the truth about God: His character of love; His loving, transparent, freeing way of running His government; and His determination to include as many of us as are willing into that kingdom.
- Jesus Christ came to this world to teach us about God. The death of Jesus was not a payment of some penalty. To whom would such a payment be paid? Does God owe some ransom to the Devil? Does Jesus owe something to the Father on our behalf because He, Jesus, has become human, and humans have sinned? Let us never make the mistake of thinking that Jesus loves us more than the Father. (John 3:16; 16:26-27) We must never try to place any kind of separation or barrier between the Father and Jesus.
[From the writings of Ellen G. White=EGW:] Had God the Father come to our world and dwelt among us, veiling His glory and humbling Himself, that humanity might look upon Him, the history that we have of the life of Christ would not have been changed in unfolding its record of His own condescending grace. In every act of Jesus, in every lesson of His instruction, we are to see and hear and recognize God. In sight, in hearing, in effect, it is the voice and movements of the Father.—Letter 83, 1895.—Ellen G. White, Manuscript Releases,* vol. 21, 393.1.†‡ Compare That I May Know Him 338.4-5.
- At the beginning of the three angels’ messages, we read inRevelation 14:6 the crucial fact that the good news is eternal or everlasting. It is not just a message for God’s end-time people. What does the fact that it is eternal or everlasting mean? This is not some temporary truth, either just for us who live at the end of this world’s history, or even a temporary truth that extends to the full extent of human history. The gospel is the truth about God which has always been true! The truth about God needs to be understood in contrast to the misinformation about God that has been spread and is being spread by Satan.
- A part of the gospel is how God responds to our sins and our mistakes. God loves all sinners; but, He hates sin. He hates sin because it destroys and damages His children.
- There is no sin which God cannot forgive if we are willing to come back to Him.
Romans 3:24-26: 24Yet all who are willing are healed freely by God’s gracious Remedy which has been provided by Jesus Christ.
25 God presented Jesus as the way and the means of restoration. Now, through the trust established by the evidence of God’s character revealed when Jesus died, we may partake of the Remedy procured by Christ. God did this to demonstrate that he is right and good–because in his forbearance he suspended, for a time, the ultimate consequence of us being out of harmony with his design for life–yet he has been falsely accused of being unfair. 26He did it to demonstrate at the present time how right and good he is, so that he would also be seen as being right when he heals those who trust in Jesus.—Paraphrased by Timothy R. Jennings M.D., The Remedy New Testament. Come and Reason Ministries. (2016).
1 Corinthians 15:1-4: 1 And now I want to remind you, my brothers and sisters, of the Good News which I preached to you, which you received, and on which your faith stands firm. 2That is the gospel, the message that I preached to you. You are saved by the gospel if you hold firmly to it—unless it was for nothing that you believed.
3 I passed on to you what I received, which is of the greatest importance: that Christ died for our sins, as written in the Scriptures; 4that he was buried and that he was raised to life three days later, as written in the Scriptures.?Good News Bible.* [Imagine how the Gentile pagans responded, hearing this for the first time!]‡
- Notice that it must be first demonstrated that God Himself is right and good before He can help us. If God were anything like Satan has claimed He is, would you want to have anything to do with Him?
- Notice four points in these passages from Paul as outlined in the Bible study guide.
- We are justified freely by grace. [This means life-long education.]
- Grace is a declaration of God’s righteousness.
- Grace justifies those who by faith accept Jesus.
- God’s love was demonstrated for us while we were yet sinners.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Monday, April 10.†‡
- Try to imagine yourself being appointed as one of the disciples of Jesus. How did it change their lives? Even others such as Paul, Barnabas, and Silas found their lives absorbed by their thoughts about Christ and what He did for humans and the universe.
[BSG:] Christ’s grace is unmerited, undeserved, and unearned. Jesus died the agonizing, painful death that lost sinners will die. He experienced the fullness of the Father’s wrath, or judgment, against sin. He was rejected so that we could be accepted. He died the death that was ours, so we could live the life that was His.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Monday, April 10.‡
- Why was all of that necessary? Couldn’t God just forgive us and accept us back? If not, why not? Is the Father demanding “a pound of flesh” in payment for our sins? If we deserve to die because we are sinners, why would the death of the only “Human” who has ever lived on this earth who wasn’t a sinner be required to pay for our sin-debt in which He had no part? What did God’s angels think about this?
[EGW:] Christ was treated as we deserve, that we might be treated as He deserves. He was condemned for our sins, in which He had no share, that we might be justified by His righteousness, in which we had no share. He suffered the death which was ours, that we might receive the life which was His. “With His stripes we are healed.” [Isaiah 53:5]—Ellen G. White, The Desire of Ages* 25.2.‡ [SeeIsaiah 53:5 and1 Peter 2:24.]‡
- What was demonstrated so convincingly by the life and death of Jesus Christ? Notice these words from Ellen White about the final hours of Christ’s life.
[EGW:] Upon Christ as our substitute and surety was laid the iniquity of us all. He was counted a transgressor, that He might redeem us from the condemnation of the law. The guilt of every descendant of Adam was pressing upon His heart. The wrath of God against sin, the terrible manifestation of His displeasure because of iniquity, filled the soul of His Son with consternation. All His life Christ had been publishing to a fallen world the good news of the Father’s mercy and pardoning love. Salvation for the chief of sinners was His theme. But now with the terrible weight of guilt He bears, He cannot see the Father’s reconciling face. The withdrawal of the divine countenance from the Saviour in this hour of supreme anguish pierced His heart with a sorrow that can never be fully understood by man. So great was this agony that His physical pain was hardly felt. [How much pain had Jesus experienced already?]
Satan with his fierce temptations wrung the heart of Jesus. The Saviour could not see through the portals of the tomb. Hope did not present to Him His coming forth from the grave a conqueror, or tell Him of the Father’s acceptance of the sacrifice. He feared that sin was so offensive to God that Their separation was to be eternal. Christ felt the anguish which the sinner will feel when mercy shall no longer plead for the guilty race. It was the sense of sin, bringing the Father’s wrath upon Him as man’s substitute, that made the cup He drank so bitter, and broke the heart of the Son of God.—Ellen G. White, The Desire of Ages* 753.1-2.†‡
- Jesus felt the presence of His Father every day during His ministry. He prayed to His Father every night, sometimes talking/praying with Him all night long. (Luke 6:12) However, on the cross, Jesus felt the presence of His Father going away. The agony which this loss of His Father’s presence caused in Jesus was so great “that His physical pain was hardly felt!” We cannot imagine that kind of pain.
- Do we feel pain every time we choose to sin, thus separating ourselves from God?
- And we must remember passages like2 Timothy 1:9; Titus 1:2; andEphesians 1:4, which tell us that God planned this all before the creation of our world. He knew what was coming before the creation of our world! Can you imagine the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit counseling together and planning out exactly what Jesus would have to do when He came to this earth?
[BSG:] The three angels’ messages [the three “cosmic” messages] are a story of grace. They are the story of a Savior’s love beyond measure—a story of Jesus who loves us so much that He would rather experience hell itself than have one of us lost. They are the story of a boundless, unfathomable, incomprehensible, undying, unending, infinite love.
God is never caught by surprise. He is not subject to the changing winds of humanity’s choices. As we have already seen, His plan to deliver us from the domain of sin was not some afterthought when sin reared its ugly head. God was not caught off guard by the awful drama of sin.
The phrase “everlasting gospel” inRevelation 14:6 speaks of the past, the present, and the future. When God created humans with the capacity to make moral choices, He anticipated that they would make errant choices. Once His creatures had the capacity to choose, they had the capacity to rebel against His loving nature. The only way to avoid this reality would be to create robot beings controlled and manipulated by some divine cosmic plan. Forced allegiance is contrary to God’s very nature. Love requires choice, and once beings are given the power of choice, the possibility of making the wrong choices exists. Therefore, the plan of salvation was conceived in the mind of God before our first parents’ rebellion in Eden.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Tuesday, April 11.†‡
[EGW:] The plan for our redemption was not an afterthought, a plan formulated after the fall of Adam. It was a revelation of “the mystery which hath been kept in silence through times eternal.”Romans 16:25, R.V. It was an unfolding of the principles that from eternal ages have been the foundation of God’s throne.—Ellen G. White, The Desire of Ages* 22.2.†‡
Ephesians 1:4: Even before the world was made, God had already chosen us to be his through our union with Christ, so that we would be holy and without fault before him.?Good News Bible.*†
- What does it suggest to you to be told that you have been chosen by God for salvation? In fact, you were chosen before the foundation of this world was laid!
- The three angels’ messages inRevelation 14:6-12 are a response to the Devil’s actions as described in Revelation 13. Do we clearly understand the differences between Satan’s plans as spelled out in Revelation 13 and God’s answers outlined in Revelation 14?
- Is it clear that God intends for this message to be given in its final form to the entire world? How many people would it take to do that? How much time have we committed on a day-by-day basis to spreading this good news? Do we spend time thinking about how we can be a part of spreading it?
[BSG:] According to the urgent, end-time message of the first of these three angels, the “everlasting gospel” is to be proclaimed to every nation, tribe, tongue, and people. Here is a mission so grand, so large, so great, and so comprehensive that it is all-consuming. It demands our best efforts and requires our total commitment. It leads us from a preoccupation with our own self-interest to a passion for Christ’s service. It inspires us with something larger than ourselves and leads us out of the narrow confines of our own minds to a grander vision.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Wednesday, April 12.‡
- ReadMatthew 28:19-20. How do these ideas dovetail with the first angel’s message?
Matthew 28:19-20: 19 “Go, then, to all peoples everywhere and make them my disciples: baptize them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, 20and teach them to obey everything I have commanded you. And I will be with you always, to the end of the age.”?Good News Bible.*†
- Notice these words from one Christian author about that challenging goal.
[BSG:] In his book A Quest for More: Living for Something Bigger Than You, Paul David Tripp discusses the psychological need of every human being to be part of something larger than themselves: “Human beings were created to be part of something bigger than their own lives. Sin causes us to shrink our lives down to the size of our lives. The grace of Christ is given to rescue us from the claustrophobic confines of our own little self-focused kingdom and frees us to live for the eternal purposes and satisfying delights of the kingdom of God.”—B&B Media Group, “Living for Something Bigger Than Yourself,” n.d., … [The website is listed, but there is no hyperlink.]
There is nothing more inspiring, more fulfilling, more rewarding than being part of a divine movement, providentially raised up by God to accomplish a task far bigger, far larger, than any one human being could ever accomplish on their own. The commission given by God described in Revelation 14 is the greatest task ever committed to His church. It is an earnest appeal to give our lives to heaven’s grandest task to reveal God’s incomprehensible love just before Jesus’ return.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Wednesday, April 12.‡§
[BSG:] In 1874, the General Conference sent out our first missionary to Europe. Ellen G. White called John Andrews “the ablest man in our ranks.” Andrews spoke at least seven languages, could repeat the New Testament from memory, and knew most of the Old Testament. He was a brilliant scholar, a prolific writer, a powerful preacher, and a competent theologian. [Why did the Seventh-day Adventist Church send our first missionary to the seat of the Protestant Reformation?]
Why send a man like that to a place where there were very few believers? Why send “the ablest man” you had to an unknown mission field? And why was he willing to go? His wife had died a few years earlier. Why would he be willing to leave family and friends behind in America and sail with his two children to an unknown land, risking all for the cause of Christ?
There is only one reason. He believed that Jesus was coming soon, that the message of end-time truth must go to the entire world.
Throughout our history, our brightest and our best have traveled to the ends of the earth to proclaim God’s last-day message. They were teachers, medical personnel, pastors, farmers, mechanics, carpenters, and tradesmen of all types. Some were denominational employees, but many were not. They were laypeople who believed Jesus was coming soon.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Thursday, April 13.‡
- ReadRevelation 14:6;Acts 1:8; andMatthew 24:14. What similarity do you see in these?
Acts 1:8: “But when the Holy Spirit comes upon you, you will be filled with power, and you will be witnesses for me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.”?Good News Bible.*†
Matthew 24:14: “And this Good News about the Kingdom will be preached through all the world for a witness to all nations; and then the end will come.”?Good News Bible.*† [Revelation 14:6 is quoted in Item #1 above.]‡
[BSG:] The preaching of the everlasting gospel leaps across geographical boundaries. It penetrates earth’s remotest areas. It reaches people of every language and culture. Eventually, it will impact the entire world. How fascinating to know that our message has, so far, reached more than 210 of the world’s 235 countries recognized by the United Nations.
What role could you play, and how could you better play it, in helping spread the three angels’ messages to every “nation, kindred, tongue, and people”??Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Thursday, April 13.†‡
[BSG:] Physically, what are we but small packets of flesh carrying around our own brains—a couple of pounds of carbon-based organic material closer in composition to a bucket of fried chicken than to a hard drive.
What can these small, self-contained packets of meat mean in contrast to the infinity that surrounds them? To live only for yourself, to live for something no bigger than yourself, when there’s so much all around us and beyond us, is like being locked for life in solitary confinement amid a large city that you can feel vibrating through the walls. And what larger, grander, and more glorious and consequential thing could we live for than proclaiming the promise of eternal life that we have been given in Jesus??Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Friday, April 14.‡
- Early Adventism was consumed with spreading the three angels’ messages.
[EGW:] Servants of God, with their faces lighted up and shining with holy consecration, will hasten from place to place to proclaim the message from heaven. By thousands of voices, all over the earth, the warning will be given. Miracles will be wrought, the sick will be healed, and signs and wonders will follow the believers. Satan also works, with lying wonders, even bringing down fire from heaven in the sight of men.Revelation 13:13. Thus the inhabitants of the earth will be brought to take their stand.—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 612.1.‡
- So, how much is included in the three angels’ messages?
[EGW:] Several have written to me, inquiring if the message of justification by faith is the third angel’s message, and I have answered, “It is the third angel’s message in verity.” The prophet declares, “And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory.” Brightness, glory, and power are to be connected with the third angel’s message, and conviction will follow wherever it is preached in demonstration of the Spirit. How will any of our brethren know when this light shall come to the people of God? As yet, we certainly have not seen the light that answers to this description. God has light for his people, and all who will accept it will see the sinfulness of remaining in a lukewarm condition; they will heed the counsel of the True Witness when he says, “Be zealous therefore, and repent. Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.”—Ellen G. White, Review and Herald,* April 1, 1890, par. 8.†‡
- We may recognize that the everlasting gospel is the truth about God that will never change. However, unfortunately, there are so many countries that may have only a few Adventists living there, and by far the majority have never heard of Adventists. In some of those countries, it is forbidden to change one’s religion or to evangelize.
- Why are these verses inRevelation 14:6-12 so important to us today? These are God’s final, end-time message, His last warning to the people on earth. And if we are not instrumental in spreading that message, we are condemning them to the second death. Do we understand the everlasting gospel adequately so that we can spread it in the best possible way?
- Will it ever be possible to spread the everlasting gospel to every person capable of making an honest decision in the entire world? Could God have sent angels to do this work instead of asking us to do it? Wouldn’t they have done a better job? Why didn’t He?
- The three angels’ messages are the end-time message for our church: The identifying mark of those who will be faithful to God at the very end of this world’s history.
- We started our study by talking about the Shema as recorded inDeuteronomy 6:4 and its importance in ancient Israel. Notice this incredible story from just after World War II.
[BSG:] Twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, Jewish families repeated: “ ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one!’ ” (Deut. 6:4, NKJV).
“ ‘Hear, O Israel.’ ” Throughout the centuries of their exile, the chanting of the Shema [sic] reminded Jews of the spiritual vision and path that united them as a people. The chanting of the Shema [sic] also strengthened the people’s resolve to resist the various attempts to force them to abandon their spiritual vision and path.
Deuteronomy 6:4 was one of the first verses that a Jewish child in ancient Israel was taught as soon as he or she learned how to speak. In addition, Jewish mothers continually taught their young children to chant the Shema [sic] before going to sleep.
There is an amazing example of the power of this faith identity point that took place immediately after the Second World War ended in 1945. Some leading rabbis visited Christian orphanages in search of Jewish children. During the war, many Jewish parents in Europe had placed their children in Christian orphanages to save them from the Nazis. It was the hope of these parents that they would later be reunited with their children after the war. If they (the parents) did not survive, they hoped that surviving relatives or friends would find their children.
After the war, most of the priests and nuns who ran these orphanages were unwilling to release the Jewish children back into the custody of their families. The priests and nuns often denied that they had any Jewish children in residence. During one visit, a leading rabbi asked the priest in charge of an orphanage to allow him to return in the evening when the children were going to sleep. The priest reluctantly agreed to the rabbi’s request. When the rabbi returned, he entered the children’s room, and as he walked through the aisles of beds, he chanted the Hebrew words of the Shema [sic]. One by one, children burst into tears and cried out, “Mama!” Many repeated the words of the Shema [sic]. The priests were caught completely by surprise. They were unable to erase these children’s memories of their Jewish mothers putting them to bed every night with the Shema [sic] on their lips. The head priest had no choice but to admit that he was “mistaken”; thus, these lost children of Israel were able to return “home” to their people and to their Torah.
Burned into the consciousness of these children, indelibly impressed upon their minds, were those words that confirmed their Jewish identity. “ ‘The Lord our God, the Lord is one!’ ” (Deut. 6:4, NKJV).?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 39-40.†‡§ [The word sic in brackets is added several times above.]‡
- Should we memorize the three angels’ messages and find ever better ways to spread them to those around us?
[EGW:] In a special sense Seventh-day Adventists have been set in the world as watchmen and light bearers. To them has been entrusted the last warning for a perishing world. On them is shining wonderful light from the word of God. They have been given a work of the most solemn import—the proclamation of the first, second, and third angels’ messages. There is no other work of so great importance. They are to allow nothing else to absorb their attention.—Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church,* vol. 9, 19.1.‡
[BSG:] These messages are urgent, eternal, and universal. At their heart is the everlasting gospel. What is the gospel? It is the eternal good news of Christ’s life, death, resurrection, high priestly ministry, and soon return. It is the good news that Jesus saves us from our sin and empowers us to overcome. To understand the gospel is to grasp the significance of God’s undying, unfathomable, exhaustless love for us. The gospel begins in the heart of God. Before we have reached out to Him, He is reaching out to us. Before we ever sought Him, He was seeking us. Before we ever made one move toward Him, He was drawing us to Himself through the power of His love….
The gospel invites us to come to Jesus just as we are, but it does not leave us there. In response to Jesus’ love, we will desire to live godly lives. His grace not only covers our past, but it also works as a dynamic principle in our lives, empowering us to obey. The apostle Paul makes this point clear inRomans 1:5: “Through Him [Jesus] we have received grace and apostleship for obedience” (NKJV)….
When we are saved by His grace, charmed by His love, and changed by His power, our natural response is to share with others what Christ has done for us. Our Christian witness is the overflow of a heart filled with God’s love. When the gospel breaks our hard, sin-polluted hearts, we long to tell the story of His grace. Understanding the everlasting gospel is the very foundation of our witness to the world. The gospel ofRevelation 14:6 that is proclaimed to the ends of the earth is a gospel that each one of us has experienced personally in our own lives. The heart of this … study is understanding the gospel, experiencing the gospel, and sharing the gospel in the context of Christ’s soon return.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 41-42.†‡§ [The word Jesus in brackets above is in the source.]‡
- Do you sometimes wonder about your own salvation? Do you understand how much God loves you and how much He wants you to be a part of His kingdom? Have you been through some difficult experiences in your life to make you wonder where God is?
[EGW:] Jesus loves to have us come to Him just as we are, sinful, helpless, dependent. We may come with all our weakness, our folly, our sinfulness, and fall at His feet in penitence. It is His glory to encircle us in the arms of His love and to bind up our wounds, to cleanse us from all impurity.—Ellen G. White, Steps to Christ* 52.2.‡
- The Members of the Godhead are standing with Their arms wide open. Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are pleading with us to prepare ourselves so that They can come back quickly. Are we doing that? Do we have the assurance of salvation right now? If not, what factors keep us from having that assurance?
- In what ways are we witnessing to God? Are we ready to make that a day-by-day goal?
©2023, Kenneth Hart, MD, MA, MPH. Permission is hereby granted for any noncommercial use of these materials. Free distribution of all or of a portion of this material such as to a Bible study class is encouraged. *Electronic version. †Bold type is added. ‡Brackets and content in brackets are added. §Italic type is in the source. Info@theox.org
Last Modified: March 26, 2023