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Sermon Outline

Three Cosmic Messages

Jesus Wins?Satan Loses

Lesson #1 for April 1, 2023

Scriptures: Revelation 12; 13:14-17;Ephesians 5:25-27,32; Philippians 3:9; Daniel 7:25; Isaiah 14:12-14.

  1. With this lesson we begin a challenging study ofRevelation 14:6-12, the three cosmic messages also known as the three angels’ messages. It is impossible to fully understand any part of the book of Revelation without first having a clear understanding of the whole book. If it is possible, one should read the book through from beginning to end in one “sitting” in at least two different versions of the Bible in preparation for this study.
  2. The entire New Testament is based on many details from the Old Testament. This is particularly true of the book of Revelation. It has been estimated that there are between 600 and 1000 references or inferences from the Old Testament found in the book of Revelation. Of particular significance is one’s understanding of the books of Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel in order to clearly understand the book of Revelation.
  3. In this particular lesson, we will carefully study Revelation 12 as an introduction to the core message of the book of Revelation as found in Revelation 12-14. In these three chapters, we see spelled out the great controversy from its beginning in the courts of heaven where Lucifer, standing next to the throne of God, rebelled and became Satan, the deceiver and opponent of God. Satan lost that first war against Michael, a code name for Jesus Christ Himself, and was cast out of heaven.
  4. Satan carried his rebellion to this earth and convinced Adam and Eve to rebel, to stop trusting in God, and to sin. From that day until this, Satan has appeared to rule on this earth. But, we know that, ultimately, in this great controversy, Jesus wins and Satan loses. Our task is to just remain firmly committed to Jesus’s side in the great controversy. Look at what Revelation says about the beginning of the great controversy.

Revelation 12:7-9: 7 Then war broke out in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, who fought back with his angels; 8but the dragon was defeated, and he and his angels were not allowed to stay in heaven any longer. 9The huge dragon was thrown out—that ancient serpent, called the Devil, or Satan, that deceived the whole world. He was thrown down to earth, and all his angels with him.—American Bible Society. (1992). The Holy Bible: The Good News Translation* (2nd ed.,Revelation 12:7-9). New York: American Bible Society [abbreviated as Good News Bible].†‡

  1. Try to imagine how the “number one angel,” Lucifer, could stand next to the throne of God and gradually develop a rebellious, selfish attitude. We know that God has foreknowledge; He knew what was coming. However, freedom, the power to choose, is absolutely essential in God’s kingdom. Love is impossible without freedom. And love can never be forced. (See Desire of Ages 22-23.)
  2. See the handout entitled “Love” on our website at www.theox.org.


  1. However, this demonstrates to us that there is no middle ground in the great controversy. It is impossible to have one’s life governed by love and at the same time have it governed by selfishness. The choice is between love which is God’s way versus selfishness which is Satan’s way. Unfortunately, in this world we are born selfish; so, we have to intentionally choose love if we want to be on God’s side.

2 Timothy 1:9: He saved us and called us to be his own people, not because of what we have done, but because of his own purpose and grace. He gave us this grace by means of Christ Jesus before the beginning of time.?Good News Bible.*

  1. God realized what the price was going to be when He created intelligent beings on this earth and allowed freedom. Jesus realized what He was going to have to do to combat sin and win against Satan.
  2. Let us again look at Revelation 12 and see if we can get a clear picture of what it means.

Revelation 12:4-6: 4With his tail he dragged a third of the stars out of the sky and threw them down to the earth. He stood in front of the woman, in order to eat her child as soon as it was born. 5Then she gave birth to a son, who will rule over all nations with an iron rod. But the child was snatched away and taken to God and his throne. 6The woman fled to the desert, to a place God had prepared for her, where she will be taken care of for 1,260 days.?Good News Bible.* [Then, read verses 7-9 as above in item #4.]

  1. Using biblical imagery, we are told that Satan managed to convince about one-third of the angels in heaven to follow him, rebelling against God. Many more had questions about God until the situation became clear to them at the cross. Satan was cast to this earth before our world was created. This is shown by the fact that when the Garden of Eden was created, Satan was given a place at the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The tree of knowledge of good and evil was intended to be a protection for Adam and Eve. So long as they did not go near that tree, they did not have anything to worry about. It was only when they approached that tree that it became a test for them.
  2. In Revelation 12, we notice several very important key figures: Dragon is the word used to describe Satan and his role. The picture of a woman is used to describe God’s faithful church, both in the times of the Old Testament and New Testament. The “Male child” born to the woman was Jesus Christ. The rod of iron is a codename for the rulership of this world?those who will be in control.
  3. One important thing to understand in studying the book of Revelation is that it is organized as a chiasm. What that means is that under God’s guidance, John placed the most important portion right in the middle of the book in Revelation 12-14. Revelation 1-11 talk about the history of God’s people. Revelation 15-20 tell what will happen later in history.Revelation 12:7-12 talk about the beginning of that war in heaven.
  4. What things are made very clear in this chapter? 1) There was war. 2) That war began in heaven and not on this earth. 3) The war has a non-human protagonist. No humans were there when the war began. 4) Someone else started it. 5) A non-human will lose the war. 6) The war will be won through bloodshed, that blood being the blood of the Victor, that is, the blood of the Lamb. We need to make it very clear that what Revelation says about the blood of the Lamb is very different from what is usually stressed in traditional theology. 7) The war is not fully over yet.
  5. Looking briefly at the entire chapter of Revelation 12, we see a pattern. The war in heaven describes how the war began. (Revelation 12:7-12) That is the epicenter of this discussion. The story of the birth and life of Jesus on this earth is the decisive middle of this war. (Revelation 12:1-5) The all-out assault on “the rest of her children” comprises the conclusion. (Revelation 12:13-17)
  6. Revelation 13-20 give us much more detail about how, ultimately, the conflict is resolved. Think of this strange outcome: JESUS WINS BY DYING!
  7. So, the question we must ask is a question about human history on this earth: What has God done to destroy sin and all associated with it? Our sins are not to be covered over; they are to be removed!

Zechariah 3:1-5: 1 In another vision the LORD showed me the High Priest Joshua standing before the angel of the LORD. And there beside Joshua stood Satan, ready to bring an accusation against him. 2The angel of the LORD said to Satan, “May the LORD condemn you, Satan! May the LORD, who loves Jerusalem, condemn you. This man is like a stick snatched from the fire.”

3 Joshua was standing there, wearing filthy clothes. 4The angel said to his heavenly attendants, “Take away the filthy clothes this man is wearing.” Then he said to Joshua, “I have taken away your sin and will give you new clothes to wear.”

5 He commanded the attendants to put a clean turban on Joshua’s head. They did so, and then they put the new clothes on him while the angel of the LORD stood there.?Good News Bible.*

  1. InPhilippians 3:9, we are told that “the righteousness that comes from God and is based on faith” is what gives us the victory. How does that work? We can seek to follow Jesus and emulate His example. Or, we can reject Him and practice the selfishness invented by Lucifer/Satan. Having faith means that we are daily studying the life of Christ and by beholding, we are being changed into His likeness, becoming partakers of the divine nature.Romans 14:23 tells us that “anything that is not based on faith is sin.” God’s side, love, is based on faith and our relationship with Him. Satan’s side, selfishness, is based on sin and the world’s relationship to him.
  2. A brief survey of Scripture teaches us that in every battle between Christ and Satan, Christ wins. How many times was there an individual and personal battle between Jesus and Satan? But, should we consider Christ’s death on the cross as a victory for Satan? Satan thought it was, at least as long as Jesus was still in the grave! Satan and his angels did everything that they could to keep Jesus in that grave!
  3. As Christians who believe in Scripture, we can be confident that Satan has been defeated.

Revelation 12:11: “Our brothers and sisters won the victory over him by the blood of the Lamb and by the truth which they proclaimed; and they were willing to give up their lives and die.”?Good News Bible.* [What truths from the Bible would you be willing to die for?]

  1. In Revelation 2-4, we discover that among the seven churches are identified those who “overcome.”Revelation 12:11 assures us that we can overcome through “the blood of the Lamb.” What does that mean?

Revelation 5:6: Then I saw a Lamb standing in the centre [sic] of the throne, surrounded by the four living creatures and the elders. The Lamb appeared to have been killed. It had seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God that have been sent throughout the whole earth.?Good News Bible.*

  1. The word slain inRevelation 5:6 in the King James Version, or the word killed in the Good News Bible, means, literally, brutally slaughtered, not slain as in a sacrifice on the altar.
  2. It is often suggested by evangelical Christians that Christ was offered as a sacrifice on an altar. This is not the correct picture. Christ was brutally slaughtered in the battle between God and Satan in the great controversy.
  3. Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14; andColossians 2:14 tell us that God is willing to forgive our sins and set us free. He cancels the unfavorable record of our debts.
  4. But, the great controversy is not over. When Satan lost at the cross, he determined to do everything he possibly could to defeat or even destroy God’s faithful followers down through the following generations.

Revelation 12:6: The woman fled to the desert, to a place God had prepared for her, where she will be taken care of for 1,260 days.?Good News Bible.*

Revelation 12:14-16: 14She was given the two wings of a large eagle in order to fly to her place in the desert, where she will be taken care of for three and a half years, safe from the dragon’s attack. 15And then from his mouth the dragon poured out a flood of water after the woman, so that it would carry her away. 16But the earth helped the woman; it opened its mouth and swallowed the water that had come from the dragon’s mouth.?Good News Bible.*

[From the Bible study guide=BSG:] The 1,260 days inRevelation 12:6 are parallel to the time, times, and half a time inRevelation 12:14. This same time prophecy describing the same time period is found inDaniel 7:25; Revelation 11:2, 3; andRevelation 13:5. Because these are prophetic symbols (a literal woman with wings did not go into the wilderness), we apply prophetic time, the day-year principle (see, for instance,Numbers 14:34 andEzekiel 4:4–6), to these prophecies. This means, simply, that one prophetic day equals one year. Commenting on this same prophetic period of time inRevelation 11:2, the Andrews Study Bible states, “Historicist interpreters, therefore, have generally understood the period of 1,260 prophetic days to mean 1,260 literal years running from a.d. 538 to 1798” (p. 1,673 comments onRevelation 11:2). A corrupt church—together with a corrupt state—oppressed, persecuted, and at times slaughtered God’s faithful people.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Wednesday, March 29.†‡§

  1. During this 1260-year period, the major event in the great controversy was the Protestant Reformation. Would people continue to be faithful and obey the priests and the pope? Or, would they ally themselves with God’s Word? Protestants triumphed.
  2. Also during this time while many Protestants were being captured and imprisoned or even killed, a new land was discovered across the ocean to which many persecuted Protestants fled; that was the Americas. SeeRevelation 12:16 as above in item #24.

[BSG:] The devil has been at war with Christ since his rebellion in heaven (Rev. 12:7). Satan’s purpose then and his purpose now is to seize control of the universe (seeIsa. 14:12–14). The focus of his attention in the last days of earth’s history is upon God’s people.Revelation 12:17 emphatically declares that the dragon (Satan) was wroth (angry) with the woman (the church) and went to make war with the rest of her offspring. This expression, the rest of her offspring, also is translated “the remnant” in the King James Version [sic]. God’s remnant remains loyal to Christ, obedient to His truth, and faithful to His mission.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Thursday, March 30.†‡§

Revelation 12:17: The dragon was furious with the woman and went off to fight against the rest of her descendants, all those who obey God’s commandments and are faithful to the truth revealed by Jesus.?Good News Bible.*

  1. Revelation 12:17 needs to be compared withIsaiah 14:12-14.

Isaiah 14:12-14: 12 “King of Babylonia, bright morning star, you have fallen from heaven! In the past you conquered nations, but now you have been thrown to the ground. 13You were determined to climb up to heaven and to place your throne above the highest stars. You thought you would sit like a king on that mountain in the north where the gods assemble. 14You said you would climb to the tops of the clouds and be like the Almighty.”?Good News Bible.* [That mountain in the north is spoken of in Revelation as Armageddon.]

  1. It is clear fromRevelation 12:17 that God’s faithful people in the final stages of the great controversy will be those who faithfully keep the commandments of God and teach the truth about God as revealed by Jesus.
  2. Satan is furious with these people. He knows that if they remain faithful, his time will be up. It is a life-and-death matter for him. Wouldn’t you like to be helpful in destroying Satan forever?
  3. Those end-time faithful people will be loyal to the truth as revealed by Jesus. What is that truth? It is the truth about God as opposed to the misinformation about God that is being spread by Satan and his followers. Do we believe the truth about God? Or, do we believe Satan’s lies about God?
  4. Revelation 13:3-8 suggest that almost the entire world is going to worship Satan!
  5. To understand a little bit about Satan’s response to all we have studied so far, readRevelation 13:14-17.

Revelation 13:14-17: 14And it deceived all the people living on earth by means of the miracles which it was allowed to perform in the presence of the first beast. The beast told them to build an image in honour [sic] of the beast that had been wounded by the sword and yet lived. 15The second beast was allowed to breathe life into the image of the first beast, so that the image could talk and put to death all those who would not worship it. 16The beast forced all the people, small and great, rich and poor, slave and free, to have a mark placed on their right-hands or on their foreheads. 17No one could buy or sell without having this mark, that is, the beast’s name or the number that stands for the name.?Good News Bible.*†‡ [In the Bible a beast represents a religious power that uses a separate power whether civil or military or economic to enforce its dogmas.]

  1. Do we have any idea about how this final battle might actually play out?

[From the writings of Ellen G. White=EGW:] The “image to the beast” represents that form of apostate Protestantism which will be developed when the Protestant churches shall seek the aid of the civil power for the enforcement of their dogmas. The “mark of the beast” still remains to be defined.

After the warning against the worship of the beast and his image the prophecy declares: “Here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” Since those who keep God’s commandments are thus placed in contrast with those that worship the beast and his image and receive his mark, it follows that the keeping of God’s law, on the one hand, and its violation, on the other, will make the distinction between the worshipers of God and the worshipers of the beast.—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 445.2-446.0 [1911].†‡

[EGW:] When God’s presence was finally withdrawn from the Jewish nation, priests and people knew it not. Though under the control of Satan, and swayed by the most horrible and malignant passions, they still regarded themselves as the chosen of God. The ministration in the temple continued; sacrifices were offered upon its polluted altars, and daily the divine blessing was invoked upon a people guilty of the blood of God’s dear Son and seeking to slay His ministers and apostles. So when the irrevocable decision of the sanctuary has been pronounced and the destiny of the world has been forever fixed, the inhabitants of the earth will know it not. The forms of religion will be continued by a people from whom the Spirit of God has been finally withdrawn; and the satanic zeal with which the prince of evil will inspire them for the accomplishment of his malignant designs, will bear the semblance of zeal for God.

As the Sabbath has become the special point of controversy throughout Christendom, and religious and secular authorities have combined to enforce the observance of the Sunday, the persistent refusal of a small minority to yield to the popular demand will make them objects of universal execration. It will be urged that the few who stand in opposition to an institution of the church and a law of the state ought not to be tolerated; that it is better for them to suffer than for whole nations to be thrown into confusion and lawlessness. The same argument many centuries ago was brought against Christ by the “rulers of the people.” “It is expedient for us,” said the wily Caiaphas, “that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.”John 11:50. This argument will appear conclusive; and a decree will finally be issued against those who hallow the Sabbath of the fourth commandment, denouncing them as deserving of the severest punishment and giving the people liberty, after a certain time, to put them to death. Romanism in the Old World and apostate Protestantism in the New will pursue a similar course toward those who honor all the divine precepts.—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 615.1-616.0.†‡

[BSG:] In a sense, we could argue that God had no choice: if He wanted beings who could love Him and love others, He had to create them free. If they were not free, they could not love, and what would our universe be without love? It would be what some people have claimed: nothing but a mindless machine that works according to strict laws of cause and effect and in which we have no free will, no free choice, and are nothing but flesh-and-blood packets of subatomic particles that follow only the laws of physics. Not exactly a pretty picture, nor does it represent what we know, in and of ourselves, to be true. Who among us thinks, for instance, that our love for our parents, our children, our spouses is nothing but an arrangement of atoms??Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Friday, March 31.†‡ [How would you like to live forever in a universe without love?]

[EGW:] The law of love being the foundation of the government of God, the happiness of all intelligent beings depends upon their perfect accord with its great principles of righteousness. God desires from all His creatures the service of love—service that springs from an appreciation of His character. He takes no pleasure in a forced obedience; and to all He grants freedom of will, that they may render Him voluntary service.

So long as all created beings acknowledged the allegiance of love, there was perfect harmony throughout the universe of God. It was the joy of the heavenly host to fulfill the purpose of their Creator. They delighted in reflecting His glory and showing forth His praise. And while love to God was supreme, love for one another was confiding and unselfish. There was no note of discord to mar the celestial harmonies.—Ellen G. White, Patriarchs and Prophets* 34.3-35.1.

  1. We have suggested that Satan’s attack on Jesus was not only during His infancy but rather was during His entire life. Satan did everything he could think of to destroy the life and influence of Jesus. For “three days and three nights” from Friday afternoon to early Sunday morning, Satan celebrated the death of Jesus. However, then came the resurrection, and Satan’s doom was sealed!
  2. Are you certain that God will win in the end? Could Satan actually be defeated? Look at what is happening in our world today.
  3. The book of Revelation begins with Revelation 1 and the glorious picture of Christ in heaven. It ends with a glorious picture of the new earth, Christ with His redeemed people, living in a perfect world. Between those, we have Revelation 12 the epicenter of the book, spelling out the crisis that developed and its resolution.
  4. Looking down through history, we realize that Satan has destroyed many of God’s people. At times when Satan cannot actually kill/destroy God’s people, he does his best to weaken their influence. But, he has never been able to fully wipe out God’s influence.

[BSG:] The candle of truth may have flickered, but it has never been snuffed out. There has always been a light in the darkness. Eventually, the entire earth will be lightened with the glory of God (Rev. 18:1). The American writer James Russell Lowell states it well in the poem “The Present Crisis”:

Truth forever on the scaffold,

Wrong forever on the throne—

Yet that scaffold sways the future,

And, behind the dim unknown,

Standeth God within the shadow,

Keeping watch above His own.

?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 14.‡§

  1. So, how did God win the great controversy? The death of Jesus on the cross answered once and for all the major questions in the great controversy: Would we be better off with God’s plan for the universe, i.e., being ruled by love for God and for all other creatures? Or, would we be better off with Satan’s plan for the universe, i.e., selfishness, putting self first in every situation? God had said that sin leads to death; Satan claimed that was a lie. (Genesis 2:17; 3:1-4) The truth was spelled out on the cross when God separated His life-giving forces from Jesus and the results of unrivaled sin were seen. On the cross, Jesus asked, “Why have You forsaken Me?” He did not ask, “Why are you killing me?”
  2. We cannot become overcomers and join God’s side by our own inherent willpower.

[EGW:] All who will can be overcomers. Let us strive earnestly to reach the standard set before us. Christ knows our weakness, and to Him we can go daily for help. It is not necessary for us to gain strength a month ahead. We are to conquer from day to day (MS 28, 1886)....

We become overcomers by helping others to overcome, by the blood of the Lamb and the word of our testimony. The keeping of the commandments of God will yield in us an obedient spirit, and the service that is the offspring of such a spirit, God can accept.—Ellen G. White, (Letter 236, 1908).—Nichol, F. D. (Ed.). (1980). The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary,* vol. 7, 974.3-4. Review and Herald Publishing Association [in comments onRevelation 12:11].†‡

  1. Unfortunately, both Satan and Jesus know our weak points. Satan is doing everything he can to exploit those weak points to lead to our defeat. Jesus promises to deliver us from guilt and the grip of sin if we stay close to Him. WhileRevelation 12:11 makes it clear that those who remain faithful to God will win the victory over Satan,Revelation 12:17 tells us that that battle will not be an easy one. Victory will come only for those who are keeping God’s commandments and are committed to telling the truth as revealed by Jesus.
  2. Satan always loves help. He calls on two human agencies to assist him.

Revelation 13:1-18: 1 Then I saw a beast coming up out of the sea. It had ten horns and seven heads; on each of its horns there was a crown, and on each of its heads there was a name that was insulting to God. 2The beast looked like a leopard, with feet like a bear’s feet and a mouth like a lion’s mouth. The dragon gave the beast his own power, his throne, and his vast authority. 3One of the heads of the beast seemed to have been fatally wounded, but the wound had healed. The whole earth was amazed and followed the beast. 4Everyone worshipped the dragon because he had given his authority to the beast. They worshipped the beast also, saying, “Who is like the beast? Who can fight against it?”

5 The beast was allowed to make proud claims which were insulting to God, and it was permitted to have authority for 42 months. 6It began to curse God, his name, the place where he lives, and all those who live in heaven. 7It was allowed to fight against God’s people and to defeat them, and it was given authority over every tribe, nation, language, and race. 8All people living on earth will worship it, except those whose names were written before the creation of the world in the book of the living which belongs to the Lamb that was killed.

9 “Listen, then, if you have ears! 10Whoever is meant to be captured will surely be captured; whoever is meant to be killed by the sword will surely be killed by the sword. This calls for endurance and faith on the part of God’s people.”

11 Then I saw another beast, which came up out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb’s horns, and it spoke like a dragon. 12It used the vast authority of the first beast in its presence. It forced the earth and all who live on it to worship the first beast, whose wound had healed. 13This second beast performed great miracles; it made fire come down out of heaven to earth in the sight of everyone. 14And it deceived all the people living on earth by means of the miracles which it was allowed to perform in the presence of the first beast. The beast told them to build an image in honour [sic] of the beast that had been wounded by the sword and yet lived. 15The second beast was allowed to breathe life into the image of the first beast, so that the image could talk and put to death all those who would not worship it. 16The beast forced all the people, small and great, rich and poor, slave and free, to have a mark placed on their right-hands or on their foreheads. 17No one could buy or sell without having this mark, that is, the beast’s name or the number that stands for the name.

18 This calls for wisdom. Whoever is intelligent can work out the meaning of the number of the beast, because the number stands for a human name. Its number is 666.?Good News Bible.*†‡

  1. However, we know exactly what will be the final end of all three of them.

Revelation 16:13: Then I saw three unclean spirits that looked like frogs. They were coming out of the mouth of the dragon, the mouth of the beast, and the mouth of the false prophet.?Good News Bible.*

Revelation 19:20: The beast was taken prisoner, together with the false prophet who had performed miracles in his presence. (It was by those miracles that he had deceived those who had the mark of the beast and those who had worshipped the image of the beast.) The beast and the false prophet were both thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulphur [sic].?Good News Bible.*†‡

[BSG:] Seventh-day Adventists understand that these two beasts represent the Papacy (the Roman Catholic Church state power) and the United States, respectively. Furthermore, so closely aligned is spiritualism with Satan that the dragon is a symbol for both. Under the auspices of this threefold union—the dragon (spiritualism), the beast from the sea (the Papacy), and the beast from the land, also known as the false prophet (apostate Protestantism under the auspices of the United States of America)—Satan will make war on the remnant people of God.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 15.†‡

  1. So, what is a remnant? The Old Testament inGenesis 45:7 suggests that God took His people out of Egypt as a remnant. FirstKings 19:14-18 tell about the time when Elijah believed he was the only faithful one left in Israel; however, God assured him that there were 7000 left who were a faithful remnant.
  2. God also described the people who returned after the Babylonian captivity as a remnant. (Jeremiah 23:3; Jeremiah 31:7) Seventh-day Adventists have taught and believed thatRevelation 12:17; Revelation 14:12; andRevelation 19:10 clearly point out that our church if we remain faithful to God is on track to be among the remnant at the end of time.
  3. In conclusion, Revelation 12 teaches us clearly that Jesus Christ will be with His faithful people despite all the difficulties they face to the very end.
  4. Are we convinced that Christ has never lost a battle with Satan? Do you believe that whatever trials we face, God is there to carry His people through triumphantly? Does reviewing Revelation 12 give you courage and hope?
  5. Those who faithfully read and understand Revelation 12 can rejoice in the victory that is ours over the powers of hell.

©2023, Kenneth Hart, MD, MA, MPH. Permission is hereby granted for any noncommercial use of these materials. Free distribution of all or of a portion of this material such as to a Bible study class is encouraged. *Electronic version. Bold type is added. Brackets and content in brackets are added. §Italic type is in the source.                                                                                    Info@theox.org

Last Modified: March 20, 2023