Three Cosmic Messages
The Good News of the Judgment
Lesson #5 for April 29, 2023
Scriptures:Revelation 4:2-4; 5:1-12; 14:7; 20:12; Psalm 51:1-4; Daniel 7:9,14,26.
- The heavenly universe is tired of sin. God must find a way to bring “the sin problem” to a conclusion once and for all. However, God “cannot” do that without a careful examination and demonstration of each person’s case. He is determined to save as many as possible.
- Fortunately, the day will come soon when God must show to the universe who will be saved to spend the rest of eternity with Him and who will be left behind on this earth, dead at the second coming. God who knows every detail about us will judge fairly. He will save and take to heaven every person who is safe to live next door to for the rest of eternity. This reveals to us that the goodness and grace of God is magnificent. He does the best possible thing for everyone, including Satan.
- As we have already seen,Revelation 12:7-12 speak of the beginning of the rebellion in heaven. CompareIsaiah 14:12-14 andEzekiel 28:12-15.
- So, do we look forward to God’s judgment when He will cleanse the universe of all traces of selfishness, sin, disease, and death?
- InRomans 1:16-17, Paul rejoiced in the good news. So, why is it that inRomans 1:18,24,26,28, he immediately jumped to talking about God’s wrath? As we have noted on many occasions God’s wrath is simply His turning away in loving disappointment from those who do not want Him anyway and have persistently refused God’s advances, thus leaving them to the inevitable and awful consequences of their own continued, rebellious choices. They reap the natural results of their evil thoughts, words, deeds, and separation from God. However, He saves anyone who comes to Him.
Romans 6:23: For sin pays its wage—death; but God’s free gift is eternal life in union with Christ Jesus our Lord.?American Bible Society. (1992). The Holy Bible: The Good News Translation* (2nd ed.,Romans 6:23). New York: American Bible Society [abbreviated as Good News Bible].†‡
- It is very important to recognize that the entire universe is involved in this judgment.
Daniel 7:9-10: 9 While I was looking, thrones were put in place. One who had been living for ever [sic] sat down on one of the thrones. His clothes were white as snow, and his hair was like pure wool. His throne, mounted on fiery wheels, was blazing with fire, 10and a stream of fire was pouring out from it. There were many thousands of people there to serve him, and millions of people stood before him. The court began its session, and the books were opened.?Good News Bible.*†‡
- In response to Satan’s evil which began in heaven next to God’s throne, God will lay out the truth about everyone who has ever lived on this earth and also about Satan and his evil followers for the entire universe to see and evaluate. They are the jury. What choices have we made in life? Do those choices show that we want to be more like Jesus? How well do you think you will fair in the judgment with Jesus as your defense attorney, Satan as your accuser, and the jury of the entire universe, expecting the truth to be revealed?
Zechariah 3:1-5: 1 In another vision the LORD showed me the High Priest Joshua standing before the angel of the LORD. And there beside Joshua stood Satan, ready to bring an accusation against him. 2The angel of the LORD said to Satan, “May the LORD condemn you, Satan! May the LORD, who loves Jerusalem, condemn you. This man is like a stick snatched from the fire.”
3 Joshua was standing there, wearing filthy clothes. 4The angel said to his heavenly attendants, “Take away the filthy clothes this man is wearing.” Then he said to Joshua, “I have taken away your sin and will give you new clothes to wear.” [SeeRomans 3:23.]
5 He commanded the attendants to put a clean turban on Joshua’s head. They did so, and then they put the new clothes on him while the angel of the LORD stood there.?Good News Bible.*†‡
- Surely, no one who has made any significant study of the gospel in the Bible would suggest that s/he has lived a perfect life. We are all sinners; we have failed God on numerous occasions. If God chose to do nothing on our behalf, we would all perish.
[From the writings of Ellen G. White=EGW:] Zechariah’s vision of Joshua and the Angel applies with peculiar force to the experience of God’s people in the closing up of the great day of atonement. The remnant church will be brought into great trial and distress. Those who keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus will feel the ire of the dragon and his hosts. Satan numbers the world as his subjects, he has gained control of the apostate churches; but here is a little company that are resisting his supremacy. If he could blot them from the earth, his triumph would be complete….
Their only hope is in the mercy of God; their only defense will be prayer. As Joshua was pleading before the Angel, so the remnant church, with brokenness of heart and earnest faith, will plead for pardon and deliverance through Jesus their Advocate. They are fully conscious of the sinfulness of their lives, they see their weakness and unworthiness, and as they look upon themselves they are ready to despair. The tempter stands by to accuse them, as he stood by to resist Joshua. He points to their filthy garments, their defective characters. He presents their weakness and folly, their sins of ingratitude, their unlikeness to Christ, which has dishonored their Redeemer. He endeavors to affright the soul with the thought that their case is hopeless, that the stain of their defilement will never be washed away. He hopes to so destroy their faith that they will yield to his temptations, turn from their allegiance to God, and receive the mark of the beast. [Imagine hearing Satan describe your life in the worst terms!]
Satan urges before God his accusations against them, declaring that they have by their sins forfeited the divine protection, and claiming the right to destroy them as transgressors. He pronounces them just as deserving as himself of exclusion from the favor of God. “Are these,” he says, “the people who are to take my place in heaven and the place of the angels who united with me? While they profess to obey the law of God, have they kept its precepts? Have they not been lovers of self more than of God? Have they not placed their own interests above His service? Have they not loved the things of the world? Look at the sins which have marked their lives. Behold their selfishness, their malice, their hatred toward one another.”
The people of God have been in many respects very faulty. Satan has an accurate knowledge of the sins which he has tempted them to commit, and he presents these in the most exaggerated light, declaring: “Will God banish me and my angels from His presence, and yet reward those who have been guilty of the same sins? Thou canst not do this, O Lord, in justice. Thy throne will not stand in righteousness and judgment. Justice demands that sentence be pronounced against them.” [CompareGenesis 18:25.]
But while the followers of Christ have sinned, they have not given themselves to the control of evil. They have put away their sins, and have sought the Lord in humility and contrition, and the divine Advocate pleads in their behalf.—Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church,* vol. 5, 472.2-474.2.†‡
- But, God’s law stands there repeating for all to see what kind of people are safe to live next door to for the rest of eternity. What authority stands behind the law to enforce its demands? Is God the One who demands the death of the sinner? (RereadRomans 6:23.)
- Sin will ultimately destroy itself and us unless we can escape sin’s control and accept God’s offer. (Romans 6:23)
- Let us not deceive ourselves: Everything we have ever done or ever thought or ever said will be reviewed in the final judgment. Satan will accuse every one of us of everything he can imagine. However, Jesus is there to tell the truth about us—that we are changed. What is Jesus able to say about us? Have we followed the guidance of the Holy Spirit? If we have followed His guidance, our relationship to Jesus Christ will lead to good works. The good works do not save us; they are the result of our relationship with Him.
[EGW:] The fact that the acknowledged people of God are represented as standing before the Lord in filthy garments should lead to humility and deep searching of heart on the part of all who profess His name. Those who are indeed purifying their souls by obeying the truth will have a most humble opinion of themselves. The more closely they view the spotless character of Christ, the stronger will be their desire to be conformed to His image, and the less will they see of purity or holiness in themselves. But while we should realize our sinful condition, we are to rely upon Christ as our righteousness, our sanctification, and our redemption. We cannot answer the charges of Satan against us. Christ alone can make an effectual plea in our behalf. He is able to silence the accuser with arguments founded not upon our merits, but on His own.—Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church,* vol. 5, 471.1-472.0.†‡
- We shed the “dirty clothes” of sin by accepting the free offer from God of forgiveness and salvation. By beholding, we become changed.
[EGW:] It is a law both of the intellectual and the spiritual nature that by beholding we become changed. The mind gradually adapts itself to the subjects upon which it is allowed to dwell. It becomes assimilated to that which it is accustomed to love and reverence. Man will never rise higher than his standard of purity or goodness or truth. If self is his loftiest ideal, he will never attain to anything more exalted. Rather, he will constantly sink lower and lower. The grace of God alone has power to exalt man. Left to himself, his course must inevitably be downward.—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 555.1.†‡
- Those who have had a careful look at the Bible recognize that the books of Daniel and Revelation are especially important to compare. Look at Daniel 7; compare it with what we are learning inRevelation 14:6-7.
[EGW:] When the books of Daniel and Revelation are better understood, believers will have an entirely different religious experience. They will be given such glimpses of the open gates of heaven that heart and mind will be impressed in regard to the character all must develop in order to realize the blessedness which is to be the reward of the pure in heart.—Ellen G. White, [Written January 27, 1900, from “Sunnyside,” Cooranbong, NSW, to F. E. Belden, Review and Herald, Battle Creek, Michigan.] Manuscript Releases,* vol. 18, 24.2.†‡ Testimonies to Ministers*€ 114.3.†‡
- As we have already noted, Revelation tells us that the hour of God’s judgment has come. It is time for us to judge God and time for God to judge us. Revelation does not tell us when that time will come; but, chapters 7-9 of Daniel give us some very good clues.
[From the Bible study guide=BSG:] The book of Revelation announces that “ ‘the hour of His judgment has come’ ” (Rev. 14:7, NKJV). Revelation does not indicate either the nature of the judgment or the exact time that the judgment begins. But Daniel does. Daniel 7-9 is interconnected and clearly reveals both the nature and timing of the judgment. The prophetic books of Daniel and Revelation belong together. Understanding Daniel helps us understand Revelation. When Daniel describes the nature of the judgment in Daniel 7, he describes it in the context of Christ’s victory over the despotic powers of this world. Earlier in Daniel 7, four beasts march across the landscape, oppressing the people of God. According toDaniel 7:17, 23, these beasts represent kings or kingdoms. The key words in Daniel 7 are “kingdom” and “dominion.”
There is a battle for control of this world. Finally, a “little horn” power arises as a religio-political power that attempts to change God’s law and seeks to rule over the earth. Our attention is then turned from earth to heaven. The Ancient of Days, our heavenly Father, convenes heaven’s judgment hour. The Son of man, Jesus, joins the Father. In the judgment, it is revealed that Christ is the rightful ruler of the universe. Daniel states, “ ‘I was watching in the night visions, and behold, One like the Son of Man, coming with the clouds of heaven! He came to the Ancient of Days, and they brought Him near before Him. Then to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom the one which shall not be destroyed’ ” (Dan. 7:13, 14, NKJV).?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 65-66.†‡§
Daniel 7:17,23: 17 He said, “These four huge beasts are four empires which will arise on earth….”
23 This is the explanation I was given: “The fourth beast is a fourth empire that will be on the earth and will be different from all other empires. It will crush the whole earth and trample it down.”?Good News Bible.*†
Daniel 7:13-14: 13 During this vision in the night, I saw what looked like a human being. He was approaching me, surrounded by clouds, and he went to the one who had been living for ever [sic] and was presented to him. 14He was given authority, honour [sic], and royal power, so that the people of all nations, races, and languages would serve him. His authority would last for ever [sic], and his kingdom would never end.?Good News Bible.*‡
[BSG:] In the judgment, in front of the entire universe, Christ is revealed as its rightful ruler. Satan’s kingdom is fully exposed as evil, deceptive, selfish, and destructive. Heaven reveals that the Godhead did everything possible to save all humanity at the cross. The little-horn power (papal Rome) and all earthly powers are condemned in the judgment. Judgment is passed in favor of the people of God. As a consequence, the work of judgment also is entrusted to them during the millennial reign with Christ in heaven after the Second Coming. For committed Christians loyal to Christ, trusting His grace, and clothed in His righteousness, the judgment is good news, not bad news.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 66.†‡
- Take a careful look at the words in Daniel 7. What does Daniel 7 teach us about how this judgment takes place and what the results will be?
Daniel 7:26-27: 26 “Then the heavenly court will sit in judgement, take away his [the little horn’s] power, and destroy him completely. 27The power and greatness of all the kingdoms on earth will be given to the people of the Supreme God. Their royal power will never end and all rulers on earth will serve and obey them.”?Good News Bible.*†‡
[BSG:] The destiny of all humanity is decided in heaven’s courtroom. Right prevails. Truth triumphs. Justice reigns. This is one of the most amazing, most marvelous, most spectacular scenes in all of Scripture. And the good news is that it ends very well for God’s faithful people, those clothed in the righteousness of Christ.
Jesus approaches His heavenly Father in the presence of the entire universe. Heavenly beings crowd in around the throne of God. The entire universe of unfallen beings stands in awe of this judgment scene. The long conflict that has been waged for millennia is soon to be over. The battle for the throne of the universe is fully, completely decided.?Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Tuesday, April 25.†‡
- God will save every person that has ever lived who is safe to live next door to for the rest of eternity.
- Satan is still trying to exert his power even though he knows that his fate is sealed.
[BSG:] Daniel was right about the empires that came and went, just as predicted. Why, then, does it make so much sense to trust the Word of God about what it says regarding the final one [the one yet to come], “an everlasting kingdom” that shall never “pass away”??Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* for Tuesday, April 25.†‡
- Revelation 4 also gives us a look at God’s throne in heaven and the surrounding scene. Compare these words with the words in Daniel 7.
Revelation 4:2-4: 2At once the Spirit took control of me. There in heaven was a throne with someone sitting on it. 3His face gleamed like such precious stones as jasper and carnelian, and all round the throne there was a rainbow the colour [sic] of an emerald. 4In a circle round the throne were 24 other thrones, on which were seated 24 elders dressed in white and wearing crowns [stephanos] of gold.?Good News Bible.*†‡
- Notice that there are 24 elders dressed in white, wearing crowns of gold and surrounding the throne of God. These crowns are crowns of victory, not kingly crowns. Who are those 24 elders? We should note that the term elders?those who are “older”?is only used in the Bible to describe human beings. This tells us that some human beings will be allowed to sit around the throne of God in heaven and participate in the judgment.
- So far, we have noticed judgment scenes with God sitting on His throne in Daniel 7 and Revelation 4. ReadRevelation 5:1-3. In these verses is a possible solution and also a significant problem.
Revelation 5:1-3: 1I saw a scroll in the right-hand of the one who sits on the throne; it was covered with writing on both sides and was sealed with seven seals. 2And I saw a mighty angel, who announced in a loud voice, “Who is worthy to break the seals and open the scroll?” 3But there was no one in heaven or on earth or in the world below who could open the scroll and look inside it.?Good News Bible.*†
- Who sealed this scroll? Why is it being held in the hands of God? What does that mean?
Revelation 5:5-12: 5Then one of the elders said to me, “Don’t cry. Look! The Lion from Judah’s tribe, the great descendant of David, has won the victory, and he can break the seven seals and open the scroll.”
6 Then I saw a Lamb standing in the centre [sic] of the throne, surrounded by the four living creatures and the elders. The Lamb appeared to have been killed. It had seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God that have been sent throughout the whole earth. 7The Lamb went and took the scroll from the right-hand of the one who sits on the throne. 8As he did so, the four living creatures and the 24 elders fell down before the Lamb. Each had a harp and gold bowls filled with incense, which are the prayers of God’s people. 9They sang a new song:
“You are worthy to take the scroll
and to break open its seals.
For you were killed [brutally slaughtered], and by your sacrificial death you bought for God
people from every tribe, language, nation, and race.
10 You have made them a kingdom of priests to serve our God,
and they shall rule on earth.”
11 Again I looked, and I heard angels, thousands and millions of them! They stood round the throne, the four living creatures, and the elders, 12and sang in a loud voice:
“The Lamb who was killed is worthy
to receive power, wealth, wisdom, and strength,
honour, [sic] glory, and praise!”?Good News Bible.*‡
- Is there any reason for fear? Don’t you think Jesus is a successful defense Attorney? The purpose of this whole process is not to find out how bad we are but to reveal how good God is!
- Jesus Himself had some very interesting words to say about the judgment process.
John 3:17-21: 17 “For God did not send his Son into the world to be its judge, but to be its saviour [sic].
18 “Those who believe in the Son are not judged; but those who do not believe have already been judged, because they have not believed in God’s only Son. 19This is how the judgement works: the light has come into the world, but people love the darkness rather than the light, because their deeds are evil. 20All those who do evil things hate the light and will not come to the light, because they do not want their evil deeds to be shown up. 21But those who do what is true come to the light in order that the light may show that what they did was in obedience to God.”?Good News Bible.*†‡
- Coming to the light is particularly important in these final days of this world’s history.
[EGW:] Those who endeavor to obey all the commandments of God will be opposed and derided. They can stand only in God. In order to endure the trial before them, they must understand the will of God as revealed in His word; they can honor Him only as they have a right conception of His character, government, and purposes, and act in accordance with them. None but those who have fortified the mind with the truths of the Bible will stand through the last great conflict. To every soul will come the searching test: Shall I obey God rather than men? The decisive hour is even now at hand. Are our feet planted on the rock of God’s immutable word? Are we prepared to stand firm in defense of the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus?—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 593.2-594.0.†‡ [Do we “have a right conception of His character, government, and purposes”? Have we fortified our minds?]‡
Daniel 7:22: Then the one who had been living for ever [sic] came and pronounced judgement in favour [sic] of the people of the Supreme God. The time had arrived for God’s people to receive royal power.?Good News Bible.*†‡
- Again, dwell on the great hope that we have in the judgment: Jesus as our Substitute. Why is that our only hope?
- What does the idea of a “substitute” mean? Jesus stands by our side in the judgment and does everything He truthfully can do to represent us before the onlooking universe. He does this in response to Satan’s charges against us. SeeZechariah 3:1-5 above.
- So, what will be the condition of God’s faithful people at the end?
- Has the study ofRevelation 14:6-7 had any major impact on your life? Are you prepared to understand it carefully and tell others about it? Of course, as we suggested earlier, the ultimate message from Revelation 14 is to tell the truth about God in response to Satan’s accusations as recorded in Revelation 13.
- How do you see this judgment taking place? Are you comfortable that you understand it?
[BSG:] When many Christians consider the judgment, they tend to be filled with fear. They envision God in His celestial courtroom sitting as the Supreme Judge of the universe, weighing their good deeds against their bad deeds. They have this vague notion that if their good deeds outweigh their bad, they will be saved. If, perchance, their bad deeds outweigh their good deeds, they will be lost. [This is a basic teaching of the Roman Catholic Church.]
In this … lesson, we will discover that this view of the judgment is not only false, but it is also one of the devil’s [sic] deceptions to distort the character of God. Satan desires to picture God as a vindictive judge, some sort of wrathful tyrant, who wants to punish His creatures for every sin they have ever committed.
Our Sabbath School study … reveals a God of unending love who is doing everything He can to save us. He wants us in heaven even more than we want to be there. The judgment attests to the divine reality that heaven has done everything it can to save all humanity. If we are lost, it will be because we have continually resisted the claims of divine love. In the judgment, our good deeds are important because they reveal our response to the unconditional, exhaustless love of God as revealed in Christ on the cross. Our good deeds testify to the fact that our faith in Jesus is genuine. Our recognition of what Jesus has done, is doing, and will continue to do leads us to desire to serve Him forever.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 65.†‡
[EGW:] Satan sees that his voluntary rebellion has unfitted him for heaven. He has trained his powers to war against God; the purity, peace, and harmony of heaven would be to him supreme torture. His accusations against the mercy and justice of God are now silenced. The reproach which he has endeavored to cast upon Jehovah rests wholly upon himself. And now Satan bows down and confesses the justice of his sentence.—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 670.2.†‡ [SeePhilippians 2:5-11.]‡
[EGW:] Could those whose lives have been spent in rebellion against God be suddenly transported to heaven and witness the high, the holy state of perfection that ever exists there,—every soul filled with love, every countenance beaming with joy, enrapturing music in melodious strains rising in honor of God and the Lamb, and ceaseless streams of light flowing upon the redeemed from the face of Him who sitteth upon the throne,—could those whose hearts are filled with hatred of God, of truth and holiness, mingle with the heavenly throng and join their songs of praise? Could they endure the glory of God and the Lamb? No, no; years of probation were granted them, that they might form characters for heaven; but they have never trained the mind to love purity; they have never learned the language of heaven, and now it is too late. A life of rebellion against God has unfitted them for heaven. Its purity, holiness, and peace would be torture to them; the glory of God would be a consuming fire. They would long to flee from that holy place. They would welcome destruction, that they might be hidden from the face of Him who died to redeem them. The destiny of the wicked is fixed by their own choice. Their exclusion from heaven is voluntary with themselves, and just and merciful on the part of God.—Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy* 542.2-543.1.†‡
- The wicked are lost because they have trained themselves to practice the habits of Satan: Covetousness and selfishness. They think only of themselves. To go to heaven where everyone is practicing love toward all around them would be torture.
[BSG:] In the judgment, in front of the entire universe, Christ is revealed as its rightful ruler. Satan’s kingdom is fully exposed as evil, deceptive, selfish, and destructive. Heaven reveals that the Godhead did everything possible to save all humanity at the cross. The little-horn power (papal Rome) and all earthly powers are condemned in the judgment. Judgment is passed in favor of the people of God. As a consequence, the work of judgment also is entrusted to them during the millennial reign with Christ in heaven after the Second Coming. For committed Christians loyal to Christ, trusting His grace, and clothed in His righteousness, the judgment is good news, not bad news….
It is important to notice the contrast between the ancient pagan concepts of judgment and the biblical concept, as outlined in the prophetic books of Daniel and Revelation.Revelation 14:7 states, “The hour of His judgment has come” (NKJV). This hour is not only the time of God’s judging this world, but it is also the hour of the revelation of God’s love and grace before the universe. When Christ died on the cross, the entire universe beheld the love of God. There can be no greater revelation of God’s love than Calvary. The Cross settles it: God is love.
Yet, there are still questions to be answered in the cosmic conflict between good and evil. How does God’s love apply to each person? Has every person on planet Earth had sufficient evidence to make an eternal decision? Has God done everything possible to save every human being? Is there anything more that God could have done? To secure the universe forever and to enshrine, beyond a shadow of doubt, divine love within the hearts of the unfallen worlds and the redeemed of all ages, these questions must be answered, and they will be answered…. [Is this why Jesus has not come back yet?]
Both the saved and the lost, the redeemed and the wicked, will acknowledge that God is just, righteous, and loving in His actions toward us. The universe will be secure forever because His love has been revealed both on the cross and in earth’s final judgment.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 66-67.†‡§
[BSG:] Just as the Day of Atonement in the Jewish religious calendar was also a day of judgment when all of God’s people gathered at the ancient sanctuary, confessing their sins and examining their hearts, so today the call of the judgment hour is a call to confession, repentance, and the forsaking of sin. The judgment-hour call is an appeal from God to humans to be totally committed to Christ at the climax of earth’s history.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 68.†‡
- This is also a time for God to be judged!
Romans 3:1-4: 1 Have the Jews then any advantage over the Gentiles? Or is there any value in being circumcised? 2Much, indeed, in every way! In the first place, God trusted his message to the Jews. 3But what if some of them were not faithful? Does this mean that God will not be faithful? 4Certainly not! God must be true, even though every human being is a liar. As the scripture says,
“You [God] must be shown to be right when you speak;
you [God] must win your case when you [God] are being tried.”?Good News Bible.*†‡
- So, which is it? Is “the hour of God’s judgment” the time when God judges us? Or, the time when we judge Him? In fact, it is both! We judge by choosing whose side we want to be on in the end: God’s side, or Satan’s side. God judges us based on our response to His truth, love, and care.
- Notice these three important lessons that we should learn from this lesson.
[BSG:] The first important principle to be gleaned from our study this week is that we are living in a unique hour of earth’s history; the hour of God’s judgment has come. The destinies of all humans are to be decided….
The second vital truth in this week’s study is that, in Christ, we need not fear the judgment….
The third Bible truth from our study this week is that, in the final analysis, Christ will be honored, Satan will be exposed, and the righteous will be redeemed. Understanding Revelation’s judgment gives us confidence that one day the entire universe will bow in worship before our Creator, Redeemer, and triumphant King.?Adult Teachers Sabbath School Bible Study Guide* 67-68.†‡
- Do we understand how these truths should impact our lives each day? Are we preparing ourselves for what is coming?
©2023, Kenneth Hart, MD, MA, MPH. Permission is hereby granted for any noncommercial use of these materials. Free distribution of all or of a portion of this material such as to a Bible study class is encouraged. *Electronic version. †Bold type is added. ‡Brackets and content in brackets are added. §Italic type is in the source. €This source has minor wording differences compared with the first source and may also have punctuation and/or capitalization differences. Info@theox.org
Last Modified: April 20, 2023